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Amino acids and derivatives file

Posted by Jean Baptiste on

Amino acids and derivatives file

Amino acids and derivatives file

Amino acids :

What is this ?

Amino acids are essential for the various functions of the body. They constitute the basic element in the construction of proteins . In biochemistry, amino acids, constituents of peptides and proteins, play a major role in the structure, metabolism and physiology of cells.

There are 23 amino acids, they are part of the composition of muscles , molecules allowing the transfer of nervous information ( neurotransmitters ), structural proteins (membranes) and enzymes . They also participate in energy metabolism and nitrogen metabolism, with reactions specific to each.

The amino acids which cannot be synthesized by the body are called essential, there are 8 of them: Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan and Valine.

BCAA:

What is this ?

Some products contain only branched chain amino acids (BCAAs). These include leucine, isoleucine and valine. These 3 amino acids are essential amino acids .

What are they for?

BCAAs participate in the synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate compounds (gluconeogenesis), we then speak of glucoforming amino acids. They thus enable the production of glucose and ATP (muscle mitochondrial oxidation) during long-term exercise and also participate in post-exercise muscle repair and protein synthesis .

Where can we find them in Stimium® products? Stimium BCAA Instant , L-leucine L-isoleucine L-valine L-glutamine to help muscle development, muscle recovery by helping to reduce fatigue linked to exercise. Helps with muscle development / prevents muscle catabolism / helps with recovery

 Glutamine:

What is this ?
Glutamine is a non-essential amino acid, mainly produced in skeletal muscles (Bowtell et al. 1999; Golden et al. 1982). It is one of the so-called conditionally essential amino acids , because it can be produced in insufficient quantities by the body, requiring a dietary intake.

What is it for?

Glutamine, in addition to participating in protein synthesis , allows the synthesis of glucose from non-carbohydrate compounds (gluconeogenesis) and participates in the regulation of PH within the body.

In addition, it contributes to intestinal metabolism , which gives it a major role in immune defenses. Glutamine is in fact the energy source of immune cells (T lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils) and intestinal epithelial cells. It therefore participates in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal barrier and intervenes in the balance of the microbial flora. Finally, glutamine plays a key role in the transfer of nervous information (neurotransmission).

Where can we find it in food?

Glutamine is present in fish, meat, eggs, dairy products, wheat, oats, soy, spinach.

Where can it be found in Stimium® products? Stimium BCAA Instant , L-leucine L-isoleucine L-valine L-glutamine to help muscle development, muscle recovery by helping to reduce fatigue linked to exercise. - Helps muscle development / prevents muscle catabolism / helps recovery.

L-Tyrosine:

What is it for?

L-tyrosine is a non-essential α-amino acid synthesized from phenylalanine. It participates in the synthesis of molecules allowing the transfer of nervous information (catecholamines: adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine) and would have a role in stress management .
It is also a precursor of melanin and thyroid hormones . In fact, the formation of the hormone thyronine occurs from two tyrosines (Berg et al. 2013; EFSA 2013b).

It is possible that the metabolism of isolated L-tyrosine, as provided by dietary supplements, differs from that of L-tyrosine contained in common foods. It could be more oriented towards neurotransmitters than towards protein production (Young 2007).

Where can we find it in food?

L-tyrosine is present in dairy products, meat, fish, eggs, nuts, legumes and, to a lesser extent, in wheat and oats (Anses 2013b).

Where can it be found in Stimium® products? Stimium® PreWorkOut Max to improve resistance to exercise and prepare organisms for muscle strengthening loads - Increase in work performed, simple and repetitive exercises and muscular adaptation during exercise / reduces the effect of physical and mental fatigue

β-Alanine:

What is this ?

β-Alanine, used as a food supplement, is a compound of the β-amino acid family (the amine group NH2 is in the β position relative to the carboxyl group COOH).

What is it for?

Alanine plays a key role in the “glucose-alanine” cycle between tissues (transformation of pyruvate into alanine and vice versa), particularly in muscle, the site of energy expenditure, and the liver, the site of glucose storage. (Berg et al. 2013).

It is a constituent of peptides such as carnosine (histidine and ß-alanine dipeptide), mainly found in muscle and brain tissues, which plays a role in protecting cells against unstable molecules in the body ( antioxidant ), participates in the control of PH in the muscles (lactic acid inhibitor) and limits cellular aging (anti-glycation). The quantities of carnosine produced are limited by the quantity of β-alanine available in muscle tissue (Trexler et al. 2015).

Beta-alanine also allows the synthesis of anserine , present in skeletal and cerebral muscles which is an antioxidant preventing fatigue, and the synthesis of a precursor of coenzyme A (pantothenic acid, vitamin B5).

Where can we find it in food?

Alanine and its precursors are present in a large number of food sources, both animal (mainly meat, fish and seafood, dairy products, eggs, gelatin) and vegetable (legumes, nuts, seeds, brown rice, wheat, bran...) or fungal (brewer's yeast) (Anses 2013b).

Where can it be found in Stimium® products?

Stimium® PreWorkOut Max to improve resistance to exercise and prepare organisms for muscle strengthening loads - Increase in work performed, simple and repetitive exercises and muscular adaptation during exercise / reduces the effect of physical and mental fatigue

STIMIUM Pro NRJ - Effort gums for rapid energy and tone with vitamin, guarana, zinc and maltodextrin - Improves performance and alertness / Reduces muscular and mental fatigue

Arginine:

What is this ?

Arginine is an α-amino acid classified among the amino acids produced in insufficient quantities by the body, requiring a dietary intake ( conditionally essential ). Arginine is synthesized, using a very energy-intensive process, from citrulline and glutamate. The synthesis of arginine by the body is mainly intestinal and renal.

What is it for?

Arginine is involved in the immune system (proliferation of lymphocytes), wound healing (precursor of proline), blood coagulation (hemostasis) and secretion of growth hormone .

In addition to its role as a protein precursor , arginine allows the synthesis of nitric oxide which is involved in the dilation of blood vessels ( vasodilation ) and in the transfer of nervous information linked to memorization ( neurotransmission ) (Lorin et al. 2014). It also participates in the metabolism of collagen and creatine (Berg et al. 2013; EFSA 2016b).

Where can we find it in food?

Arginine is present in many food sources, both animal (milk and dairy products, meat, fish and seafood, gelatin) and vegetable (legumes, nuts, seeds, wheat and cereals in general) (Anses 2013b ). There is no minimum daily intake recommendation.

Where can it be found in Stimium® products?

Stimium® PreWorkOut Max to improve resistance to exercise and prepare organisms for muscle strengthening loads - Increase in work performed, simple and repetitive exercises and muscular adaptation during exercise / reduces the effect of physical and mental fatigue.

Stimium Boost , Effort gums for instant Energy and Tone, Better concentration, Better resistance against fatigue, Normalized energy metabolism and Protective anti-oxidant effect with Maltodextrin, L-Arginine, Caffeine, Coenzyme Q10, Vitamins - Source of energy for muscle / Improves alertness and reduces fatigue / Contributes to normal energy metabolism / Powerful antioxidant

Citrulline:

What is this ?

Citrulline is an amino acid that cannot be incorporated into the structure of proteins (non-proteinogenic), it was first identified in the composition of watermelon.

What is it for?

Citrulline is a precursor of arginine , its contribution is interesting because unlike arginine, citrulline is not degraded in the liver (ureogenesis), it can pass directly to the kidneys where it will be transformed into arginine . Finally, a citrulline intake makes it possible to bypass the phase of arginine degradation in the liver and would allow a greater quantity of arginine in the blood than with an equivalent intake of arginine.

Citrulline therefore intervenes in the same physiological mechanisms as arginine thanks to its conversion.

In performance enhancement products, citrulline is increasingly associated with malate. Unlike citrulline alone, citrulline malate allows, in addition to the effects of citrulline, to increase energy production (Krebs cycle) thanks to malate.

Where can we find it in food?

Citrulline can be found in watermelon, pumpkin, squash, cucumber and melon.

Where can it be found in Stimium® products?

Stimium® Mc3

STIMIUM MC3 - Reduces muscle fatigue and relieves cramps

STIMIUM MC3 Powder - L-Citrulline, Citrulline Malate and Maltodextrin for Recovery, nitric oxide booster and increases protein synthesis to make muscles stronger and more resilient

Methionine:

What is it for?

Methionine is a sulfur-containing amino acid precursor of taurine , cysteine ​​(synthesis of coenzyme A, dander, melanin and insulin), carnitine (allows the breakdown of fatty acids in energy metabolism), glutathione (protector of cells against reactive species in the body) and S-adenosyl-methionine (control of genetic expression and synthesis of molecules allowing the transport of nervous information). These molecular synthesis pathways are dependent on vitamins B2, B6, B9, B12, zinc and selenium which play an activating role in these reactions.
It also plays an essential role in protein synthesis because it is always the first amino acid in protein sequences. Methionine plays a role in joint well-being thanks to its sulfur composition.

Where can we find it in food?

Methionine is present in products of animal origin, notably red meat, fish, dairy products and also plants such as pulses or onions.

Where can it be found in Stimium® products?

Stimium Joint Flex , the product for joint pain, rheumatism and osteoarthritis with collagen, hyaluronic acid, glucosamine, manganese, chondroitin, L-Methionine, ginger, turmeric. Ultra complete to take as a treatment to regain freedom of movement and more flexibility.

Synergistically effective in joint inflammation, mobility and flexibility problems / Avoids morning stiffness

Taurine :

What is this ?

Taurine is a semi-essential amino acid particularly present in the brain and myocardium . It is synthesized by the body, mainly in the liver, from cysteine ​​and methionine with vitamin B6. It is also available in food and is necessary for brain development, it is the amino acid most present in breast milk.

What is it for?

It plays a role as protector of cells against reactive species in the body ( antioxidant ), regulator of the body's dissolved salt concentration ( osmoregulator ), modulator of nervous information ( neuromodulator ), cardiac protector and nervous ( cardioprotective and neuroprotective ), membrane stabilizer , blood pressure reducer and finally a role in reducing blood cholesterol levels ( lipid-lowering ).

Where can we find it in food?

Taurine is present in greatest quantities in seafood products, such as oysters, clams, sea bream and also in meat.

Where can it be found in Stimium® products?

Stimium®Pro-Nrj caps

Pro Nrj caps Energy & Fatigue Delay for Vitality and Total Strength with Beta-alanine – extract of rhodiola, ginseng, caffeine, taurine, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, chromium - Improves performance and alertness / Reduces muscular and mental fatigue

Creatine:

What is this ?

Creatine is synthesized by the kidney, liver and pancreas from three amino acids: arginine, glycine and methionine (Juhn and Tarnopolsky 1998; Tarnopolsky and Beal 2001; Walker 1979). It is distributed in all cells via a specific transporter (SLC6A8). This transporter, present at the barrier between the nervous and blood systems (blood-brain barrier), gives creatine access to the central nervous system (Christie 2007; Smith et al. 2014). Creatine is present at 95% in skeletal muscles , the remaining 5% is found in the brain, liver, testicles and kidneys. Creatine is excreted through the urine (Smith et al. 2014).

What is it for?

Creatine participates in energy production by maintaining high levels of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) in skeletal muscles. Indeed, during a muscle contraction, the stock of ATP decreases sharply. It is then regenerated by phospho-creatine thanks to the transfer of its phosphate group to ADP (adenosine diphosphate) via creatine kinase (Smith et al. 2014). This is an important metabolic pathway for intense and very short duration muscular work .

Supplementing with creatine therefore allows you to saturate the stock of phospho-creatine in the muscles in order to be able to regenerate as much ATP as possible during physical activity.

What nutritional contributions?

The EFSA has validated the claim: “ creatine improves physical capacities in the event of successive series of very intense exercises of short duration ”. This claim can only be used for products that guarantee a daily consumption of 3 g of creatine and reserved for adults performing intense physical exercise (EFSA 2011e). The EFSA also validated the claim: “ daily consumption of creatine can improve muscle strength during resistance training in adults over 55 years old ”. This claim can also only be used for a daily consumption of 3 g of creatine (EFSA 2016a).

Daily creatine requirements (around 2 g/d) are covered by the body's synthesis and dietary intake, particularly via meat and fish (Poortmans et al. 2010).

Where can it be found in Stimium® products?

Stimium PreWork Out Max ultra complete with beta alanine creatine L Arginine Vitamins L Tyrosine Caffeine - Increase in work performed, simple and repetitive exercises and muscular adaptation during exercise / reduces the effect of physical and mental fatigue

Stimium Pwr Creatine , creatine monohydrate to increase muscle strength, ATP production but also improve recovery and better tolerate training - Increase in work done, simple and repetitive exercises and muscular adaptation during exercise / reduces the effect of physical and mental fatigue

Alpha lipoic acid:

What is this ?

Alpha-lipoic acid is a sulfur-containing compound (organosulfur) derived from a carboxylic acid (alpha-linolenic acid) produced in very small quantities by our body.

What is it for?

Alpha-lipoic acid plays a role as a universal protector of cells against the body's reactive molecules (antioxidant) because it is both soluble in water (water-soluble) and in fats (fat-soluble), which gives it allows it to act and have active chemical properties in these two environments. It thus helps reduce the effects of oxidative stress caused, for example, during a diet.

In addition, it is involved in the renewal of other antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E and glutathione, which increases their duration of action and their effectiveness.

It is also an activator of enzymes involved in many biological processes such as the energy production cycle (Krebs cycle) and cellular respiration.

Finally, alpha-lipoic acid allows weight loss and better muscle regeneration.

Where can it be found in foods?

Alpha-lipoic acid is present in small quantities in food, it is found in offal, spinach and broccoli.

Where can it be found in Stimium® products ?

Stimium® ThermoShape

Stimium ThermoShape : Combination of several active ingredients for fat burning / appetite suppressant: The ultimate fat burner for effective diets with Forskolin

Bibliography:

The food supplements intended for athletes , Notice of ANSES, November 2016

Micronutrition and nutritherapy, Jérôme Manetta

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Amino acids and derivatives file Amino acids : What is this ? Amino acids are essential for the various functions of the body. They constitute the basic element in the construction of proteins . In...

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